Elite Acronym Glossary
A2LA: American Association for Laboratory Accreditation
AC: Alternating Current
AF: Antenna Factor
AM: Amplitude Modulation
AMN: Artificial Mains Network (See LISN)
ANSI: American National Standards Institute
BCI: Bulk Current Injection
BSI: British Standards Institution
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
CE: Conducted Emission
CE Marking: Product mark indicating applicable standards have been met
CENELEC: European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
CFM: Cubic Feet per Minute
CFR: Code of Federal Regulations (USA)
CI: Conducted Immunity
CIE: International Commission on Illumination
CISPR: International Special Committee on Radio Interference
CRT: Cathode Ray Tube
CS: Conducted Susceptibility
CSA: Canadian Standards Association
dB(A): Decibels referenced to 1 ampere
dBm: Decibels reference to 1 milliwatt
dB(mV): Decibels referenced to 1 millivolt
dB(mV/m): Decibels referenced to 1 millvolt per meter
dB(uV): Decibels referenced to 1 microvolt
dB(uV)/m: Decibels referenced to 1 microvolt per meter
DC: Direct Current
DoD: Department of Defense
DPI: Direct Power Injection
DSL: Digital Subscriber Line
ECCM: Electronic Counter-Countermeasure
ECM: Electronic Countermeasure
EEE/E3: Electromagnetic Environmental Effects
EFS: Electric Field Strength
EIA: Electronic Industries Alliance — prefix for electronics standards
EIRP: Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power
EMC: ElectroMagnetic Compatibility
EMI: ElectroMagnetic Interference
EMP: ElectroMagnetic Pulse
EN: European Norm (prefix for standards)
ERP: Effective Radiated Power
ESD: ElectroStatic Discharge
EUT: Equipment Under Test
EW: Electronic Warfare
FCC: Federal Communications Commission (USA)
FDA: Food and Drug Administration (USA)
FFT: Fast Fourier Transform
FIM: Field-Intensity Meter
FRN: FCC Registration Number
FSM: Field-Strength Meter
FSS: Frequency Spread Spectrum
GDPR: General Data Protection Regulation (EU)
GTEM: Gigahertz Transverse ElectroMagnetic test cell
HAAT: Height Above Average Terrain
HALT: Highly Accelerated Stress (Life) Test
HASS: Highly Accelerated Stress Screening
HBM: Human Body Model
HDMI: High Definition Multimedia Interface
HEMP: High-altitude Electromagnetic Pulse
HERF: Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Fuel
HERO: Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance
HERP: Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Personnel
HF: High Frequency
HIRF: High Intensity Radiated Field(s)
HTML: Hypertext Markup Language
HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HV: High Voltage
IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IF: Intermediate Frequency
IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission
iNARTE: International/National Association of Radio and Telecommunications Engineers
ISED: Innovation, Science and Economic Development (Canada)
ISM: industrial, scientific, medical
ISO: International Organization for Standardization
ITE: Information Technology Equipment
ITU: International Telecommunication Union
LAN: Local Area Network
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display
LED: Light Emitting Diode
LF: Low Frequency
LISN: Line Impedance Stabilization Network
LV: Low Voltage
MIMO: Multiple Input Multiple Output
MOV: Metal Oxide Varistor
NEMP: Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse
NIST: National Institute of Science and Technology (US)
NOI: Notice of Inquiry (FCC)
NPRM: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (FCC)
NSA: Normalized Site Attenuation
NTIA: National Telecommunications and Information Administration (USA)
NVLAP: National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (USA)
OATS: Open Area Test Site
OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer
OET: Office of Engineering and Technology (FCC)
PCB: Printed Circuit Board
PCS: Personal Communications Services
POE/PoE: Point Of Entry/Power over Ethernet
ppm: Parts per Million
PSD: Power Spectral Density
PWD: Printed Wiring Board
RADHAZ: Radiation Hazard
RAM: Random Access Memory/Radiation-Absorbent Material
RBW: Resolution BandWidth
RE: Radiated Emission
RFI: RadioFrequency Interference
RH: Relative Humidity
RI: Radio Immunity
rms: Root Mean Square
RS: Radiated Susceptibility
SWR: Standing Wave Ratio
TCB: Telecommunications Certification Body
TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access
TEM: Transverse ElectroMagnetic (mode)
UKCA: UK Conformity Assessment (mark indicating UK standards compliance)
UL: Underwriters Laboratories
UPCS: Unlicensed Personal Communications Services
URL: Universal Resource Locator
USB: Universal Serial Bus
UTC: Coordinated Universal Time
UVA: UltraViolet band A — spectral range with wavelengths between 315 and 400nm
UVB: UltraViolet band B — spectral range with wavelengths between 280 and 315nm
UVC: UltraViolet band C — spectral range with wavelengths between 100 and 280nm
VOM: Volt-Ohm Meter
VSWR: Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
Ω: Ohm (omega)
λ: Wavelength (lambda)
Elite Glossary of Common Terms
Accelerometer: Transducer with an electrical output directly proportional to acceleration
Aliasing: To digitize an analog signal for processing in digital instruments
Amplitude: Magnitude of displacement, velocity, or acceleration, measured from the “at rest” value.
Attenuation: The reduction of RF power through a device, usually measured in decibels (dB)
Band Reject (Notch) Filter: A filter that rejects one band of frequencies and passes both higher and lower frequencies
Bandwidth: The passband width of a bandpass filter, usually shown as the frequency difference between lower and upper3dB points.
Beamwidth: In a plane of an antenna’s main beam, the angle between the two directions in that plane in which the radiation
intensity is some fraction (usually 3dB) of the maximum value of the main beam.
Bode Plot: Frequency response graph of a system
Bump/Impact Test: Vibration test when a sample is impacted with a massive object such as a hammer.
Carrier: The RF signal that carries the information encoded or modulated on it
Coaxial Cable: A transmission line consisting of two concentric conductors insulated from each other.
Coupling/Decoupling Networks (CDN): Decoupling networks are placed between the EUT and the auxiliary equipment to ensure that the disturbance signal does not influence auxiliary equipment
Critical Damping: Minimum amount of damping which will prevent a resonant structure from oscillating
Damping: Dissipation of energy within a mechanical structure
Decibel (dB): The unit expressing the ratio between two power levels existing at two points. Measured as: dB = 10 LOG10 ( P1 / P2 ).
Deterministic: Signal spectrum consists of discrete components, such as harmonics
Directivity: A measure of how well a directional coupler isolates the couples and isolated ports.
Ductility: Ability of a metal to deform to a permanent position before it fractures.
Dynamic Range: The range from minimum (3 dB above an amplifier’s internal floor) to maximum input level a component can accept and amplify without distortion.
Elastic Limit: Maximum stress a material can sustain without permanent deformation remaining after complete release of the stress.
Equivalent isotopically radiated power (EIRP): RF power is necessary to be emitted in all directions to produce an intensity, taking account of the transmitter power plus the antenna characteristics.
Far-Field Region: An antenna’s field region that has a predominant plane-wave character with uniform field strength in both E and H fields.
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT): Calculation routine that calculates a frequency spectrum from a time waveform
Field Strength: The far-field measurement of the electric field or the magnetic field. Units: V/m, A/m or W/m
Finite Element Modeling: Computer tool that models or simulates a mechanical structure in software
Gain: Ratio of the power output to the power input in dB, typically referring to antennas or amplifiers.
Ground Loop: Stray current resulting from two ground/earthed points have different potentials
Harmonics: Spectrum components that are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency
Highpass Filter: A filter passing high frequencies and rejecting low frequencies.
Input Impedance: The impedance measured in Ohms at the input terminal of a device.
Insertion Loss: A signal reduction caused by a device being inserted in a circuit, usually measured in dB
Line Impedance Stabilization Network: An RLC circuit inserted in a cable between a device under test and a test instrument to maintain a fixed impedance.
Linearity: The condition in a system where the output consistently tracks the input
Lowpass Filter: A filter passing low frequencies and rejecting high frequencies.
Modulation: Variation of one parameter of a signal by the action of another signal
Near-Field Region: A field region close to the radiating element where the E and H fields are not plane waves, complicating test processes.
Noise Floor: The lowest possible input to a component or instrument that will produce a detectible output.
Normalized Site Attenuation: Verification process for EMC test facilities that measure test-site insertion loss from 30-1000 MHz.
Octave: A frequency interval having a ratio of two
Peak Power Density: Maximum instantaneous power density occurring when power is transmitted
Periodic: The repeat of the same pattern over time
Phase: Relative time difference between two signals of the same frequency, measured angularly
Power Factor: Reduction in power due to voltage and current being out of phase
Prime Mover: Machine converting electrical or chemical energy into mechanical motion
Return Loss: The ratio of maximum power sent down a transmission line to the power returned toward the source.
Root Mean Square: Effective value of AC current or voltage, equating AC to a DC value providing the same power transfer
Selectivity: Measure of the narrowness of a band pass filter
Source Impedance: The output impedance of a circuit.
Standard Deviation: Measure of the dispersion of data in relation to the mean values
Stopband Filter: A filter attenuating a specific frequency range.
Thermistor: Thermally sensitive resistor
Thermocouple: Temperature sensor formed by joining two dissimilar metals and applying a differential between the measuring and reference junctions.
Transient Response: The response of a device to a sudden change from a steady state, such as a signal burst.
Twisted Pair: Two conductors twisted together for signal transmission. Done to minimize electromagnetic emissions.
Ultimate Tensile Strength: Maximum tensile stress a material is capable of sustaining. Calculated as the maximum load during a tension test carried to rupture, divided by the sample’s original cross-sectional area.
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio: The ratio between the maximum and minimum standing waves on a transmission line.
Wavelength: The length in meters of a single oscillating wave.
Sample of Commonly Referenced Standards
FCC Part 15: Unlicensed Devices Intentional & Unintentional Emissions
FCC Part 74: Licensed Device Standards
MI:L-STD-461G: Dept of Defense EMC
ICES-Gen: General Requirements for Interference-Causing Equipment
RSS-Gen: General Requirements for Radio Apparatus
RSP-100: Certification of Radio Apparatus
CISPR 11: ISM EM Emissions
CISPR 12: Vehicle, Boats, IC Engine Emissions protecting off-board devices
CISPR 14-1: Household Appliance Emissions
CISPR 14-2: Household Appliance Immunity
CISPR 15: Electrical Lighting EMC
CISPR 25: Vehicle, Boats, IC Engine Emissions protecting on-board devices
CISPR 32: Multimedia Equipment EMC – Emissions
CISPR 35: Multimedia Equipment EMC – Immunity
CISPR 36: Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Emissions protecting off-board devices <30MHz
EN 55011: ISM Equipment EMC
EN 55014: Household Appliance EMC
EN 55032: ITE Equipment Emissions
EN 55035: ITE Equipment Immunity
IEC 61000-4-2: ESD
IEC 61000-4-3: Radiated Immunity
IEC 61000-4-4: EFT & Burst
IEC 61000-4-5: Voltage Surge
IEC 61000-4-6: Conducted Immunity
IEC 61000-4-7: Harmonics Immunity
IEC 61000-4-8: Magnetic Field Immunity
IEC 61000-4-11: Voltage Dips & Variations
MIL-STD-810: Dept. of Defense Environmental Stress Standards
ISO 16750: Road Vehicle Electronic Systems
SAE J1455: Heavy Duty Vehicle Electronic Systems
RTCA DO-160: Commercial Aviation Environmental Requirements
SAE J575: Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices
SAE J2139: Motor Vehicle Signal and Marking Devices
FMVSS 108: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard – Lamps, Reflective Devices
GMW14906: General Motors Lamp Development and Validation
FAA Part 23/25/27/29: Aircraft Lighting Standards
SAE AS8037: Aircraft Position Lights
FAA AC 150/5345-43J: Obstruction Lighting Infrared
49 CFR 229 125: Railway Lighting